A fire alarm system is a electrical / electronic system which is connected with many type of devices such as main panel, smoke / heat detectors, mcp, sounder etc.. to detect the fire event by indiacating audio or visualize signal at the main or individual devices.
Fire alarm panel is classified in two types in barest.
Conventional fire alarm systems are being used in many years since it is used in small organizations, schools, shops, etc…its comes with single to multi zone system. Each loops carries multiple number of devices (depends upon manufacturer). So each zones are connected with a same loop of cable. If during the fire event even the single device triggered, the panel will visualized zone alarm indication.
Addressable fire alarm system is the advanced system than the non addressable system and during the fire even it will address the particular device, wherever the fire exactly occurs. Each and every device will carry a unique address of the system. So you can pinpoint exactly which device has been activated.
Smoke detector is a device which senses smoke. it will automatically detect the smoke and sent warning signal to the fire alarm panel, which is the part of fire alarm system. The smoke detectors are work in the principal of optical photo electric method. The sensitivity of the smoke detectors may vary depends upon the environment, distance between the floor and the ceiling level and also varies depends upon the manufacture to manufacture. The triggering voltage for the smoke detectors is normally fetched from the fire alarm panel.
The MCP is operated physically. The physical activation requires human intervention. This is used to pass the signal physically before the devices are get sense the fire. When the signal passes to the fire alarm panel, the fire alarm system generates the evacuation sound to alert the public to evacuate the place immediately.